Tubal ligation or tubectomy is one of the permanent methods of contraception and sterilization which women tend to use, especially in developing countries in recent times. This process prevents the transfer of eggs, from the ovaries through the fallopian tubes to the uterus, thus preventing pregnancy.
Women resort to fallopian tube ligation as a last resort in most cases to prevent and organize pregnancy. Fallopian tube ligation costs more than vasectomy in men, and it is more complicated.
The fallopian tube is also called the uterine tube, which is about 10 centimetres long and connects to the uterus on one side and the ovary on the other, the fallopian tube helps sperm reach the egg, and the egg after fertilizing helps in the transition to the uterus through worm motion and secretion of a mucous substance to facilitate its movement.
The effectiveness of the fallopian tube resection
The operation of the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy is one of the most successful methods of contraception, with a success rate of about 99%. Still, with time, there is a slight possibility of pregnancy after cutting the fallopian tubes, as statistics showed that within a year of the operation of the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy, five out of every thousand women who have the operation could become pregnant for reasons including :
- The woman is pregnant at the time of the operation, therefore it is confirmed that there is a pregnancy before the procedure.
- That the ducts grow again, and thus the sperm reach the egg.
- That the operation was performed incorrectly.
Advantages of ligation of the fallopian tube
Some women would like to know the pros and cons of a fallopian tube rupture and the relationship between tubal ligation and the menstrual cycle. The advantages of tubal ligation include the following :
- This process does not result in any hormonal changes in the body or any effect on the menstrual cycle or sexual desire that occurs with other contraceptives.
- Fallopian tube ligation is a permanent sterilization process, so the woman will not need to use other methods of contraception.
It should also be noted that there is a big difference between the fallopian tube ligation and the partial or total hysterectomy. The partial hysterectomy involves removing the uterus without affecting the ovulation process, and therefore menstruation does not stop after performing it, while the total hysterectomy involves removing the uterus and ovaries, this leads to the cessation of ovulation and the interruption of the menstrual cycle after it is performed, while the process of ligation of the fallopian tubes, includes cutting or closing the fallopian tubes only, without removing the uterus or ovaries, which ensures that the process of ovulation and the menstrual cycle remains the same.
Complications of fallopian tube ligation
Women may wonder about the complications of the fallopian tube ligation method to prevent pregnancy. For example, does tubal ligation cause obesity ? Surgical procedures, in general, are associated with the possibility of exposure to risks and complications. Among the most important risks associated with tubal ligation are the following :
- Complications or sensitivity caused by anaesthesia, as patients may suffer from sensitivity or shortness of breath after anaesthesia for the operation.
- The occurrence of bleeding or holes in the stomach, as the blood vessels in the area of the operation, may become infected with holes that may lead to bleeding.
- Occurrence of infection, the doctor must be informed in the event of unexplained abdominal pain or heat because this could be a sign of infection.
- Perforations in the fallopian tubes surgical intervention in the area of the operation may lead to perforations in the fallopian tubes, which can lead to internal bleeding that threatens the patient’s life.
- Ectopic pregnancy is long-term damage to the fallopian tubes, as pregnancy can occur after this operation in the tubes instead of the uterus.
- Constant pain in the abdomen and pelvic area.
- This process does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases, so precautions must be taken to prevent their occurrence.
- Injury to any internal organs surrounding the operation area, such as the bladder, uterus, and intestines.
It should be noted that there are complications when performing a fallopian tube cutting operation that requires consulting a doctor, including persistent severe abdominal pain for a long time after the process, bleeding, high body temperature, or any sense of any indications of inflammation or infection.
Preparing for the fallopian tube ligation
Steps to prepare for a fallopian tube ligation procedure include :
- Written consent is obtained from the patient before the surgery.
- The operation procedures are explained to the patient and the way to do it, in addition to emphasizing that it is a permanent operation and explaining the complications of the process and that if the patient decides to withdraw from the operation after it is performed, the chances of pregnancy afterwards are minimal and the risk of ectopic pregnancy increases.
- Prefer to fast from food and water for at least six hours before the operation.
- Showering the day before the operation is preferable to reduce the possibility of infection transmission and infection of the operation area with a bacterial infection.
- The operation area is shaved, sterilized, and prepared for the surgical procedure.
- The patient may need only one day for the operation and recovery, and she can stay for a day and a night before leaving the hospital.
Methods of performing a fallopian tube ligation
The specialist doctor performs the tubal ligation in one of the following ways :
Ligation of the fallopian tubes through an abdominal incision
The fallopian tube ligation by making an incision in the abdomen is considered one of the major operations. It needs the patient to be under general anaesthesia. It is performed in the first 24 to 36 hours after birth or during the caesarean section.
The fallopian tubes may be tied after cesarean delivery, as the surgeon locates them and then cuts them without requiring endoscopy or carbon dioxide gas. The recovery period after the operation is relatively short, not exceeding a few days.
Laparoscopic ligation of the fallopian tubes
Tubal ligation through a hysteroscope is one of the common ways to operate. The advantage of operating endoscopy is that it requires a small area that does not exceed one centimetre for each incision. Thus, the operation is less painful and takes approximately half an hour to complete, resulting in small scars. The healing period is also short, as the patient can leave the hospital on the same day if her health condition is stable and there are no complications.
The ligation process of the fallopian tubes is performed endoscopically under the influence of local or general anaesthesia, where the surgeon makes two small incisions in the abdomen, one below the navel and the second above the pubic bone. The doctor uses the endoscope to locate the fallopian tubes accurately.
Fallopian tube ligation reversal
Doctors advise to be slow and not to rush the decision to perform a fallopian tube ligation because reconnecting the tube is a complex process, and the ability to become pregnant after it is not guaranteed.
The probability of success of the operation is higher in women under 35 years old and in cases where the fallopian tubes were exposed to the least damage and scarring during the cut. It depends largely on the skill of the surgeon who will operate.
It should be noted that reversing the tubal ligation process increases the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy. This dangerous condition may threaten the life of the mother and fetus. The IVF process is a good option for women who have had a fallopian tube cut if they want to become pregnant. It can be used if the operation is not successful.